Articles by Dr. Ghadar

Through more than 25 years of research in the broad field of global management, FG's articles have been cited numerous times.

Why Life Science Needs Its Own Silicon Valley

with John Sviokla and Dietrich A. Stephan
Harvard Business Review, July-August 2012
Fariborz Ghadar, director of the Center for Global Studies, writes about the need for the “Silicon Valley” effect to take place in the human genomics industry. Ghadar suggests that in order for the study of human DNA to advance to its full potential, an industry cluster must be created. “The genomics cluster will include multi-national corporations, research institutions, scientists, students, investors, related industries, and start-ups that haven’t been imagined yet,” Ghadar says. “And although the IT part of bio IT relies heavily on the Internet, geography will be a crucial factor: The genomics cluster will have a physical location. Studies show that having a high concentration of people working on similar problems in the same location speeds progress.”

Iran's Gas Swells Economic Frustration

Jane's Islamic Affairs Analyst, December 2008
Despite a wealth of natural gas, Iran’s options to diversify and make capital out of its hydrocarbon resources has been severely limited by political and structural constraints. Fariborz Ghadar assesses the country’s options for exploiting the world’s second largest reserve of natural gas and the role European customers might play.

Lines Drawn Over Iran's Resources

with Ethan Chorin
Jane's Islamic Affairs Analyst, December 2008
In its continued stand off with Iran over uranium enrichment, the United States would like Gulf Co-operation Council countries to comply with extended, resource-related sanctions against the Islamic Republic. Ethan Chorin and Fariborz Ghadar assess the long-standing, key economic relationship between the cross-Gulf neighbours and the wider ramifications of ending it.

Will They Still Feed Us When We're 65?

Los Angeles Times, Mar.20, 2005
In the swiftly changing global economy, only nations, corporations and workers that remain flexible will survive — and those most willing to adapt will thrive. As population growth sputters in some countries and accelerates in others, and the average age of people worldwide advances, imperceptible change is taking place. This shift is similar to a tectonic force.

The Evolving Role of Global Business

Keynote Address at the Thirteenth Annual ISBM Members meeting
Dr. Ghadar, director of Penn State 's Center for Global Business Studies, told the conference that the most successful global companies achieve a reputation for providing value throughout the 'international product life cycle.' Shorter product life cycles and more expensive research and development now make these firms attractive strategic partners for emerging technology companies. In turn, the value leaders with marketing clout need to ally themselves with new-technology firms to avoid an otherwise inevitable slide into mature, commoditized markets with cutthroat competition and slim profit margins.

The Growth of Biotechnology

with Heather Spindler
Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
In the span of a decade, biotechnology has evolved from an R&D initiative to a major force in the agriculture and health care industries. Manufacturers should prepare to feel increasingly the effects of biotech applications as well. While society continues to debate the morality of biotechnology, companies that develop safe applications accepted by a wary public will reap enormous profits.

Nanotechnology : Small Revolution

with Heather Spindler
Industrial Management, May-Jun, 2005
Nanotechnology is already attracting considerable investment by both governments and private industry worldwide. When perfected, advanced nanotechnology will streamline production and reduce manufacturing costs in significant ways. The result will be a $1 trillion sales market for nanotech components in the next 15 years.

IT: Ubiquitious Force

with Heather Spindler
Industrial Management, Jul-Aug, 2005
Information technology and its results touch every aspect of our lives. Statistics reveal that IT will be an ever more vital and multidimensional part of our daily lives. While the opportunities are obvious, the challenges are often hidden.

Governance: The Rising Role of NGOs

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
Information technology and its results touch every aspect of our lives. Statistics reveal that IT will be an ever more vital and multidimensional part of our daily lives. While the opportunities are obvious, the challenges are often hidden.

Population: Shifting Demographics

with Heather Spindler
Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
Worldwide population is on the rise: however, the increase is not happening symmetrically across the globe. Some of the countries that can least afford to support a burgeoning citizenship will find their resources stretched to the limit. At the same time, some developed countries will battle a problem of a declining birthrate combined with an aging population, resulting in a very lean work force.

Urbanization: Uncharted Growth

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
The rush of people from the country to the city will have profound effects on urban centers across the globe. What has happened in Sao Paulo,Brazil, in the past 50 years serves as an example of what is to come for many cities, Stretched beyond its capacity to provide residents with necessary systems, Sao Paulo has massive congestion, poor public transportation, and a noticeable lack of proper sanitation.

Disease and Globalization: On a Fast Track

with Beth Hardy
Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
While epidemics have been around for as long as humanity’s existence, their spread was once held in check by geography. However, the proliferation of high-speed global transport of people and livestock has opened the floodgates for disease transmission. Private business must find its role in responding to disease outbreaks.

Resource Management: Allocating Precious Stores

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
Water, food, and energy will be at the forefront of resource allocation concerns in the decades to come. Earth’s most precious renewable resource, water is becoming increasingly scarce; food, although produced at a rate to nourish all the Earth’s inhabitants, can’t reach the necessary locations; and energy, a driving force in the global economy, faces an uncertain future. Businesses must invest in strategic resources to position themselves to succeed as these forces unfold.

Environmental Degradation: Our Failing Earth

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
Changes in our natural environment have a profound impact, yet as elements of business planning, they have been largely overlooked. Gradual developments easily go unnoticed, but there is still time to act on negative trends, turning them to business advantages while healing our planet for everyone’s benefit.

Knowledge Dissemination: Economic Development Solution

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
Knowledge: the production and dissemination of context-dependent information—is playing an important role in wealth generation around the world. In this economy, ideas and know-how are proving to be as valuable as the traditional factors of production: capital, land, and labor. China and India are already riding this new economic wave.

Economic Integration: Tech-Enabled Synthesis

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
The world is shrinking, and companies can no longer count on thriving, let alone surviving, by isolating themselves. Both countries and companies grow more rapidly through integration, so it behooves organizations to devise management strategies to track political developments and monitor the productivity of employees worldwide.

Conflict: Its Changing Face

Industrial Management, Mar-Apr, 2005
From domestic, religious, and ethnic disputes to worldwide terrorism, conflict is a shaping force in the global economy. As the global economy continues to strengthen through foreign direct investment and monetary integration, interdependence among nation-states makes violent conflicts arising from ethnicity, religion, and ideology are intense and often irreconcilable.

The Fred Dilemma: Solve Fred’s Problem And Your Global Business Strategy Will Fall Into Place

The Center For Global Business Studies
Fred is a good friend of mine. He works at a large multinational corporation. The name of the company is not really important but for argument’s sake, let’s say that Fred works for Eastman Kodak. In fact, I know a Fred at Kodak, but I also know a Fred at BASF and I know a Fred at AT&T. Some Freds and their companies do really well, other Freds and their companies don’t. So what makes one Fred and his company successful and another Fred and his company stuggle?

Technology That Can Change the World

AgBioWorld, July 24, 2004
Technology can radically alter people's living standards around the globe, and it can solve or alleviate many of the problems we have created for ourselves. The business world should pay attention to three major areas of technological research that have the highest potential for changing the world.

Engage in Secular Iran, March 5, 2001
As the "rent-a-crowds" of the clerical regime in Tehran wind down the celebrations of the 22nd anniversary of the Islamic Republic by chanting their customary "Death to America," US policymakers are grappling with a continuing problem: how to deal with Iran. Since radicals took over the US Embassy in November 1979, America's Iran policy has moved from hostility to appeasement to dual containment to apologizing to the hostage-takers for Washington's "past mistakes."

The Dubious Logic of Global Megamergers

Harvard Business Review, July-Aug, 2000
Across the Board,the almost universal belief among executives today is that bigger is better: companies are entering into huge, pricey cross-border mergers at an unprecedented rate. Common wisdom is that industries will become more concentrated as they become more global. In this article, FG debunks the myth of increased concentration; the perceived links between the globalization of an industry and the concentration of that industry are weak. Empirical research shows that global--or globalizing--industries have actually been marked by steady decreases in concentration since World War II. FG presents the biases that managers often have about consolidation and offer alternative strategies to pursuing the big M&A deal. There are better, more profitable ways of dealing with globalization than relentless expansion, they say. Those strategies include buying up cast-off assets from merging rivals; focusing more on domestic or regional growth rather than on global expansion; taking advantage of merging rivals' weakened market position during integration and launching an aggressive marketing campaign; and building alliances with other companies rather than buying them up.

The Three Myths of Globalization

with Pankaj Ghemawat
To many people, globalization is an inexorable process in which cross-border competitors become more concentrated, increasingly produce where it is most cost effective to do so, standardize the product varieties on offer and are rewarded with sustained “globalization premia.” Global cross-industry datasets, the global auto industry and other case studies are used to probe these intuitions about industry dynamics, none of which seem to be supported broadly. And some of the mistakes that misconceptions about global industry dynamics may engender are reviewed.

Hey, Deutsche Telekom : Bigger Isn't Necessarily Better

with Pankaj Ghemawat
The Wall Street Journal, July 2000

Testing the Logic of Cross-Border Mergers

with Pankaj Ghemawat
Financial Times, Jun 8, 2000